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    您現在的位置: 黑龍江作家網 > 評論爭鳴

    我們今天應該如何看待先鋒小說的興衰

    來源:澎湃網  宗城

    先鋒小說這個概念,如今很少人提起了。但在上世紀八十年代,這卻是文學界的熱詞,青年作家和文學評論家們借助它,表達自己對傳統的反抗。在這場服膺于現代主義的文學浪潮里,馬原、格非、孫甘露、殘雪、余華等作家脫穎而出,關于先鋒小說的研討會也是一個接一個。 但三十年后,先鋒小說退居文學邊緣,現實主義小說回歸主流,盡管殘雪、閻連科等作家依然在堅持敘述上的實驗,但作為整體的先鋒浪潮已經瓦解。

    回到上世紀八十年代中期,傷痕、知青思潮消退,小說轉向現代性實驗。改革開放開啟了東方的鐵窗,大量西方流行理論涌入中國,為復出作家、新潮作家思考“怎么寫”的問題提供了理論指導和手法借鑒,在這樣的大環境下,先鋒小說應運而生。以馬原、殘雪、洪峰、余華、格非、蘇童、孫甘露等為代表的先鋒小說家發起了一場轟轟烈烈的敘事革命,將“敘事”之于小說的地位提高到前所未有的高度。文藝評論家和讀者驚奇地發現,深受西方現代主義影響的先鋒小說帶來了一種“奇異”的閱讀體驗,其敘事模式的“獨特性”也引發了如潮的爭議。這一時期,他們創作的文本從非理性主義的角度出發,否定客觀世界及其規律,蔑視理性,強調自我,注重個人的內心生活、情緒和感覺,甚至幻想和夢境,同時淡化故事情節,打亂敘事時間,活用戲仿,營造故事的欺騙性。

    先鋒小說家們注重個人主義的敘述,荒誕感的營造。譬如余華的早期小說《十八歲出門遠行》,他選取了一個十八歲的男孩初次遠行的生活片段,揭露出個體思想與社會意見的矛盾,以及生活充滿荒誕和欺騙的一面。又如格非早期的小說《迷舟》《褐色鳥群》,在《褐色鳥群》中,格非安排了四段時間的場景,又將時間打亂,讓整個故事更加迷離。而他的另一部作品《迷舟》也具有強烈的隱秘氛圍。

    中國先鋒小說家毫不避諱自己對前輩的推崇。殘雪表達出對卡夫卡的欣賞,并揚言可以超越他。格非敬畏現代主義,對拉美的文學迷宮心向往之,而余華曾說:“影響過我的作家很多,比如川端康成和卡夫卡,可是成為我師傅的,我想只有威廉·福克納。他讓我知道如何去對付心理描寫。”先鋒小說的創作深受西方現代主義文學的影響,它的敘事模式接受了“新作者理論”的指導,在20世紀初,西方生存哲學的興起帶來了對古典作者理論的反思,生存哲學強調個體生命和存在,因而否定了古典作者理論對于世界的理性反映模式。生存哲學在取消宇宙中心本體性、張揚生命和存在的同時,把理性排除在了宇宙本源之外,排除在個體的本真狀態之外,新作者理論應運而生。“新作者理論”強調藝術的自覺原則是直覺的、感性的思維方式,強調自我經驗的作用,這些特點直接影響了現代派的創作。

    在最初階段,先鋒小說的確有其積極意義。首先就是推動了人們對傳統文學形式的反思,當時的小說家們都有一種緊迫感,那就是要打破陳舊的文學形式,讓小說緊隨時代浪潮的發展。隨著知識分子對現代派理論的引進,中國小說家、評論家對小說這種藝術有了全新的認識。但到了九十年代初,先鋒小說也衍生出了許多問題,一些寫作者以先鋒之名,專門寫故弄玄虛的小說,這些小說沉迷于個體經驗,對社會和時代的問題沒有更深的關照,而它們刁鉆艱澀的用詞,在疏遠讀者的同時,也沒有闡明什么深邃的道理,或者具備強烈的感染力。這樣的小說不但市場狹窄,也引發了文學界內部的厭惡。與此同時,先鋒派對現代主義的迷戀、對中國文學傳統的摒棄,也遇到了水土不服的問題,中國并沒有西方那么豐富的現代主義接受群體,而中國的文學傳統是否真的不如西方,寫作者到底應對傳統抱有何種態度,也成為了文學界爭論的焦點。尷尬的是,先鋒派主張先進的文學技法,但在后現代主義小說家看來,他們的敘事卻成為了陳舊的存在,隨著后現代主義的傳播,以及西方對解構主義的反思,先鋒派主張的“新”文學成為“舊”文學,先鋒派內部也出現了分裂,到九十年代中期,先鋒派已非顯學,反先鋒派、回歸現實主義成為潮流。

    巧合的是,英國文學圈也有過一次相似的回潮。二戰后,英國文壇涌現了一個叫“憤怒的青年”的文學流派,他們批判現代主義,聲稱那些“實驗”是擋不住的怪癖,卻對小說本身毫無裨益。他們的代表之一斯諾說:“現代主義向內看,迷戀主體性和個人幻想;對形式和風格的注意讓小說淪落為語言結構,幾乎很少或不指涉外部世界。因此現代主義無法探討社會問題。”

    其實,小說最初是單純的講故事,一個人按照順序時間把一個前后關聯的事說出來,有人物,有時間,有地點,有情節,樸素的小說就成了。但是人間悲歡離合,故事說來道去不在乎就是幾百種組合,故事本身的新意被挖掘殆盡,小說家就不再執著于故事本身,而是“怎么講故事”。十九世紀造就了故事革命,《人間喜劇》《紅與黑》《戰爭與和平》《卡拉馬佐夫兄弟》等長篇巨制標志著小說故事的黃金時代,那一座座巨型山峰,讓后來的小說家望而生畏。于是到二十世紀,敘事革命發生了,喬伊斯、普魯斯特、伍爾夫等人吹響敘事革新的號角,怎么講故事成為小說家關注的重點。從這個角度上來說,中國的先鋒運動是潮流的產物,它的出發點是沒有問題的,只是由于中國過去在敘事探索上停滯太久,在整個小說文化和作者的培養上遠未成熟,導致了八十年代末的先鋒運動淺嘗輒止。

    余華曾說:“我覺得現在的許多年輕作家不明白一個道理,你寫的作品在你這個時代如果沒有人接受,以后永遠也沒有人接受。”說到底,在現今的文學實驗,如果不能收獲穩定的受眾,又無法對社會或人的精神困局有更深的解釋力,它就不可避免會被淘汰。小說并非曲高和寡之物,它源于大眾,接受大眾的檢閱,小說不只是作者個人的游戲,偉大的小說往往是在作者與讀者的互動間形成。先鋒小說沒有穩定的受眾,在經歷了最初的熱潮后,自然會有回落。在當時有一個大背景是:中國的市場化改革深入,出版社都要更加看重效益,出版先鋒小說效益不高,又不受主張現實主義的文學獎所青睞,自然就被拋棄了。

    固然,文學作品的成色不以它的傳播度決定,但純粹從文學性而言,中國的先鋒小說作品相比《尤利西斯》《達洛維夫人》等前輩的名作,也表現出稚嫩的一面,作者們注重的敘述手法革新,在與西方早已完成的現代主義實驗對比時,也沒有呈現出多少新意。譬如先鋒派代表作家馬原的“元敘事”手法,相似的敘述早在英國的形式革新派小說中就有出現,比如B·S·約翰遜在處女作《旅行的人們》中寫道:“去他媽的這些全是鬼話我真正寫的不是寫這些關于建筑的胡話而是想談論寫作談論我的寫作我就是我的主人公盡管多么無用的名稱我的第一個角色那么我想通過他建筑師阿爾伯特說說我自己的事情此時有什么必要掩蓋起掩蓋假裝假裝我能借他之口說一切就是一切我有興趣要說的......”

    先鋒派的嘗試雖然“失敗”了,但那種對文學革命的向往、對敘事革新的渴求,還是指導了當時一批小說家的文學創作,他們在反思先鋒小說不足的基礎上,嘗試將新奇的敘事與有趣的故事結合,創作出兼顧文學性和市場的作品,比如余華的《活著》《許三觀賣血記》、莫言的《豐乳肥臀》《蛙》、陳忠實的《白鹿原》等,他們在學習現代主義或魔幻現實主義表現手法的基礎上,將敘事扎入中國歷史的肥沃土壤,創作了市場反響熱烈的作品,如今回過頭來看,這些作品仍是改革開放后名列前茅的文學佳作。

    但是三十年過去,當作者處在現實主義占據主流、文學實驗停滯不前的當下,小說的困境轉向了一個更復雜的局面,不只是老生常談的文學邊緣化、退出公共記憶,還在于小說本身的更新也變得十分有限。大眾對小說的失望在于:當他們盼望著一部真正能解釋當下、反映時代和人的變化及其深層原因的作品出現時,文學家卻困守陳舊的敘事,在固化的秩序中關起門來玩自己的游戲。如果說巴爾扎克和托爾斯泰開辟了現實主義的廣闊天空,那作者們要面對的一個殘酷事實是——兩百年過去了,他們仍在這層天空的籠罩下。作者們不得不面對讀者尖銳的提問:“既然你只是在學他們,我為什么不看他們的,而要看你的模仿品?”

    在這個時候,回顧先鋒小說就有它的意義。先鋒的精神需要繼承,但這個繼承的關鍵不在于延續,而在于顛覆。文學的傳統也需要繼承,但在秩序固化的背景下,倘若新一代小說家要有所作為,那就不能只做循規蹈矩的弟子,而應該大膽一點,向他們的文學前輩一樣大膽地挑戰,不滿足于寫作權威、市場喜歡的小說,畢竟,無論是西方的司湯達、喬伊斯、普魯斯特,還是中國的蘭陵笑笑生、曹雪芹、魯迅,他們的偉大都不在于迎合潮流的趣味,而是大膽地探索新的小說寫作手法。

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