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    您現在的位置: 黑龍江作家網 > 評論爭鳴

    通向“大眾”的“小眾”: 有關詩歌的“公共性焦慮”

    來源:文藝報  李壯

    物理學中有種現象叫“熱脹冷縮”,一脹一縮之間,諸多連鎖反應都會隨之產生。文學也是這樣。某種文體、某種思潮現象,當它遠離公眾視野、關注熱度低的時候,可以自安自洽于微末角落,即使有問題也不容易凸顯。一旦被放置在探照燈下、體量隨關注熱度同步膨脹,固有的裂痕便也相應被放大,成為不得不加以討論的話題。詩歌便是典型。近年來“詩歌回暖”已是不爭的事實,詩歌在公共文化生活中所占的話語體量明顯膨脹,許多裂隙也隨之被放大得更加明顯。最重要的裂隙之一,與詩歌的“大眾”“小眾”問題有關:媒體上流傳甚廣、得到眾多讀者喜愛的詩句,常被專業詩人認為“不是好詩”甚至“不是詩”;至于業界所推崇的“好詩”,讀者又常常抱怨“讀不懂”“看不出哪兒好”。這廂為“詩和遠方的田野”激動萬分,那廂卻搖搖頭,說哪來的什么遠方田野,真正的好詩不過是重新發現身邊的日常。進而寫詩者眾(據不完全統計,網絡新媒體上的詩歌發表量每年近億首),為全社會所共同認可的名家名作數量卻相對少得多。一來二去,各說各話,裂隙兩邊看似共享著同一片繁榮,對繁榮的理解與指認卻始終存在著某種分裂。

    詩歌應當是“小眾”的還是“大眾”的?“藝術價值卓越”同“普通讀者喜愛”之間能否做到兼容互洽?這個命題翻譯過來,探討的其實是詩歌在藝術探索與公共接受之間的平衡問題,或者說,關乎詩歌寫作的“公共性焦慮”。

    現象是新現象,問題卻是老問題。事實上,追索百年漢語新詩的發軔,其源頭便與文學的“公共性焦慮”有著密不可分的關聯。

    100年前,胡適在《文學改良芻議》中寫道,“文學者,隨時代而變遷者。一時代有一時代之文學……今日之中國,當造今日之文學。”所謂“今日之文學”,在最基本的層面上,呈現為語言形式與材質形態的改換,于是“以白話作文作詩”成為了新文學運動的基礎性訴求:“今日所需乃是一種可讀,可聽,可歌,可講,可記的言語。要讀書不須口譯,演說不須筆譯,要施諸講壇舞臺而皆可,誦之村嫗婦孺皆可懂”(胡適《逼上梁山》);“一切語言文字的作用在于達意表情;達意達得妙,表情表得好,便是文學……中國若想有活文學,必須用白話”(胡適《建設的文學革命論》)。

    新文學運動先驅的文學實踐,毫不遮掩地顯露出公共性意圖:新的文學,需要一種充分世俗性、能夠介入日常流通、足以催生出強大傳播效果的文字媒介。文學,連同承載、構成文學的文字,不應當是一種把玩欣賞的器物,更應當是一只鑿子、一把鐵鍬,能夠在更廣闊的社會歷史層面上浚泥引水、騰波舞浪。胡適、陳獨秀等人對白話文學的力挺,因此顯示出極強的現實關懷和公共性面向,簡言之就是“文學也要有人懂”。這是新文學運動的百年初心,是白話(現代漢語)登堂入室建構文學正統的動力起源。而詩歌“作為語言的最高形式”(布羅茨基語),自然居于這場歷史風暴的中心位置,集中體現了文學革命的動機和吁求。由此而言,有關公共性的諸種考量及面向,確乎構成了百年新詩的初心、內驅動力、甚至原生合法性之一。

    必須說明的是,這種公共性考量,并不是單向的遷就和適應,而暗含著一個雙向塑造的過程:一方面,文學創作應當充分使用活的、具有當下公共流通性的語言材料,以保證其公共傳播效果(“國語的文學”);另一方面,也希望文學本身能夠深刻地參與到一種新的公共語言(及其背后新的公共生活)的建構之中,以新的表達建構新的想象、新的認同(“文學的國語”)。這類似于人類腸胃消化系統與身體肌肉系統的關系:肌肉的運作給胃部輸送食物材料,胃部經過消化運動,再將食物分解成營養物質和能量,反哺肌肉系統。詩歌作為一種集中性的、巔峰狀態的文學語言形式,在此既是反射器,也是效應器;既強調攝入,也追求輸出;既是語言的鏡子,也是語言的種子。二者相互滲透、增殖共生、甚至互為因果。

    毫無疑問,這是詩歌的一種理想狀態。然而,歷史的事實卻多少與開拓者們的構想有所差別。胡適寫出了中國現代文學史上的第一本白話詩集《嘗試集》,確乎在使用大眾語言、追求“能讀懂”的方面,做出了顯然是極其辛苦(甚至很不舒適)的嘗試;但其文學品質本身卻并不可觀,也未見曾顯示出詩歌對文學疆域之外語言的立標、引領作用,更遑論像文言文和古詩曾做到過的那樣,提供有影響力的語言價值尺度、或制造出廣泛介入公共流通的“語言硬通貨”。有關于此,唐德剛的論斷我甚為認同:“他(胡適)立志要寫‘明白清楚的詩’,這走入了詩的魔道,可能和那些寫極端不能懂的詩之作者同樣妨礙了好詩的發展……優秀詩人必能使這淺近明白的語言變成‘詩的語言’,含有無限別的意義,才能得好詩。”這其實暴露了新詩在肇始之初便留下的一道難題:詩歌藝術自身的成立、生長,與公共性的影響力或語言理想之間,有時并不能完美榫合。倘若說“淺近明白的語言”同“詩的語言”之間還可以經由天才之手相互轉換,那么“無限別的意義”與“誦之村嫗婦孺皆可懂”間的互恰,則幾乎成為了百年難題——畢竟公共語言的實用需求,決定了其對語言表述的穩定性及清晰意指,擁有天然的、近乎排他的熱愛;而詩歌語言總是本能地追求詞語碰撞時陌生含義的自由增殖、甚至追求對常規表達方式的強力扭曲。

    二者間的矛盾,造成了巨大的寫作焦慮,同時也為詩歌發展提供了源源不斷的動能。后世諸如新民歌運動、政治抒情詩、朦朧詩潮、上世紀80年代中后期的先鋒詩潮,乃至近年來興起的底層詩歌、素人寫作等諸多詩歌運動或潮流,在根子上都隱隱透露出這種與“公共性焦慮”相關的前后反撥、來回搖擺、甚至左右為難。或者說,它們或多或少都是這樣一個辯證循環運動過程的產物:詩歌自身在形式與內容、能指與所指、獨特性與通約性、表達系統與意義系統之間不斷錨定、滑動、錯位、修復,這一系列的對子總是彼此角力,又始終難以分離。

    問題的關鍵在于,此種矛盾本身具有二重性。就其靜態一面言之,詩歌存在的意義,本身便在于對公共話語方式的冒犯和破壞。它有力地更新和重置那些被現實經驗過度使用、在審美慣性中嚴重磨損、陷入通貨膨脹因而意義貶值的表達,以新的、冒險探索的語言,去替代舊的、安全熟悉的語言。詩與普通讀者間的隔閡,似乎不可避免。然而,就其動態一面言之,作為“語言先行者”的詩歌,其所開辟的新天新地,最終又依然會向公共話語空間敞開;先鋒的表達也終將成為未來的語言習慣,或者說,先鋒的嘗試本身便是為了給公共話語注入新鮮的想象和價值。朦朧詩便是很好的例子,它一度因溢出了舊日語言邏輯而被認為是“令人氣悶”,于今人而言此種表達方式卻早已司空見慣,甚至已無形間滲透了我們的日常表達,其經典性的意象譜系在今日也早已被一般大眾所接納和喜愛。僅看前者(靜態一面),詩歌當然是“小眾”的,詩歌語言從來都是作為公共語言的叛逆者甚至破壞者出現;而參看后者(動態一面),“破”的背后又隱含著“立”,詩歌的“小眾”終究還是指向“大眾”,真正優秀的詩歌所開辟出的新的表達、新的想象、新的話語方式及思維方式,終會在更普遍的維度上重塑一個民族的語言和想象力。

    詩歌語言與公共語言的關系,絕非“背道而馳”,而是“先行一步”;倘若二者之間難免存在某種錯位,這種錯位的本質并不是絕對性的場域隔離,而僅僅是相對性的歷史時差。那種“延遲的接受”和“晚到的喜愛”將會證明,對好的詩歌而言,“小眾”“大眾”的二重視域終能夠聚合為一。

    話題其來有自,語境與日俱新。具體到今日詩歌現場,我認為,真正要害的問題或許并不在“小眾”本身,而在于“小眾”的方式和性質:我們所看到的,究竟是“先知先覺的小眾”,還是“自說自話的小眾”?或者說,我們今日的許多詩歌之所以沒有獲得更廣大讀者的喜愛,究竟是由于這些詩歌在體驗和表達上超前于時代,還是僅僅由于這些詩句所表達的只是一己私語、小我悲歡,因而從一開始就不存在激起共鳴的可能?

    “和寡”未必意味著“曲高”,先行者的孤獨不等于自戀者的孤僻。同樣是“小眾”的表象,實質有可能是歷史時間意義上的超前抵達,也有可能是精神空間層面的自我封閉。前者還可稱之為“曲調高”從而充盈有創生的可能,后者若不客氣地說,則更近于“格局低”因而很容易深陷于價值的空虛。在今天,這種“自說自話的小眾”,無疑應當引起我們警醒。對這類寫作而言,詩人自身所經歷的一切,就是現實,就是生活,就是整個世界,除此之外再無他物,除此之外皆無價值。個體無疑是重要的,在某種意義上,個體的感受、價值和尊嚴,甚至是現代美學乃至現代文明倫理的基石。但如果寫作者自身的格局太過矮小,甚至就僅僅停留在自憐自戀的境界,那么這類“自說自話”的詩歌私語就很容易顯得太瑣碎、太庸常,導致詩歌在“本我”的層面上淪為廉價的“苦悶的象征”,甚至把詩歌矮化成把玩詞語的“技能秀”。這是一種披裹著“精英”外衣的“偽精英寫作”,它的表達看上去或許不失獨特,然而精神是平庸的、靈魂是無力的、意義是空洞的,只剩下技術在原地空轉。這類作品往往“很像詩”,但實質上并不能算是好詩,甚至不適合稱為詩(更適合稱為修辭)。“專業性”“不易懂”之類的技術性辯解在此只是盾牌,用以遮蔽盾牌下那“假小空”的蒼白本體。當然,我絕不是要否定“難度”“技術”在詩歌寫作中的重要意義,我的意思是,只有當靈魂在場、精神及物的情況下,難度和技術才真正體現出價值。

    格局“大”了,受眾才不會再“小”。毫無疑問,我們身處在一個總體想象破碎、經驗碎片化、個體意識高度覺醒的時代。但這并不必然地構成詩人自我關閉、自我耽溺的理由,不論在何種背景下,詩歌都不應該被粗暴簡化為私人情感的宣泄甚至排泄行為,也不應該被降格成循環生產、自我確證的技巧游戲。當代詩歌發展到今日,我們或許已不缺少“會寫詩的人”,缺少的是真正有品格有擔當的“詩人”,缺少的是那種能夠將獨特體驗超前表達,同時代現實、同更廣大人民的內心世界結合在一起并制造出共鳴的能力。我們最迫切呼喚的,或許已不再是某種具體的理論或技術,而是一種面向更廣闊現實、面向除自己之外其他生命的情懷。這種情懷,使一個詩人能夠把個體化的悲傷融匯成普世性的悲憫,能夠從一時一刻具體的場景或感受之中,提煉出超越時間、閃爍著永恒光輝的情感琥珀。它并不拒斥個體經驗,而是使個體經驗不再僅僅與那最初的個體有關,它令詩歌飛升向寫作主體的頭頂,去擁有自己更高也更自由的生命。經“小眾”而通向“大眾”的古老愿景,也正是在這種飛升之中,才最終成為可能。


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